眼前四个动词liberated和shuttled绝对难管理365体育官网

From The Gene Page 234:

From The Gene Page 234:

It is the impulse of science to try to understand nature, and the
impulse of technology to try to manipulate it. Recombinant DNA had
pushed genetics from the realm of sciece into the realm of technology.
Genes were not abstractions anymore. They could be liberated from the
genomes of organisms where they had been trapped for millennia,
shuttled between species, amplified, purified, extended, shortened,
altered, remixed, mutated, mixed, matched, cut, pasted, edited; they
were infintely malleable to human intervention. Genes were no longer
just the subjects of study, but the instruments of study. There is an
illuminated moment in the development of a child when she grasps the
recursiveness of language: just as thoughts can be used to generate
words, she realizes, words can be used to generate thoughts.
Recombinant DNA had made the language of genetics recursive.
Biologists had spent decades trying to interrogate the nature of the
gene — but now it was the gene that could be used to interrogate
biology. We had graduated, in short, from thinking about genes, to
thinking in genes.

It is the impulse of science to try to understand nature, and the
impulse of technology to try to manipulate it. Recombinant DNA had
pushed genetics from the realm of sciece into the realm of technology.
Genes were not abstractions anymore. They could be liberated from the
genomes of organisms where they had been trapped for millennia,
shuttled between species, amplified, purified, extended, shortened,
altered, remixed, mutated, mixed, matched, cut, pasted, edited; they
were infinitely malleable to human intervention. Genes were no longer
just the subjects of study, but the instruments of study. There is an
illuminated moment in the development of a child when she grasps the
recursiveness of language: just as thoughts can be used to generate
words, she realizes, words can be used to generate thoughts.
Recombinant DNA had made the language of genetics recursive.
Biologists had spent decades trying to interrogate the nature of the
gene — but now it was the gene that could be used to interrogate
biology. We had graduated, in short, from thinking about genes, to
thinking in genes.

翻译:

“They could be liberated from the genomes of organisms where they had
been trapped for millennia, shuttled between species, amplified,
purified, extended, shortened, altered, remixed, mutated, mixed,
matched, cut, pasted, edited”

科学的出发点是摸底自然,而科学和技术的视角是掌握控制自然。重新组合DNA的达成,使遗传学从一门科学成为了黄金年代项科学和技术。基因已经不复是抽象概念,不再只是绝对年来拘押在基因组中的一片段,相反,基因已经能从基因组中提抽取来,在物种间转移,并举行理并答复制、提纯、扩展、裁减、校勘、重排、变异、混合、配成对、剪切、贴合、编辑。在人类手上,它们显示出Infiniti只怕。至此,基因已经不只是钻探的课题,而成为了探究的工具。就就如儿童在长大的进度中会一语成谶,精通语言是双向的,即观念能够生出话语,而讲话也能生出观念。重新整合DNA技能的产出,让遗传学的语言(基因卡塔尔也改为了双向的。生物学家耗费时间三十几年,想要探索基因的面目–而近期得以接收基因反过来探究生物学本质。简言之,大家已经迈上新起源,基因从“难点”形成了“思路”。

那二个长句子,后半局地的动词排比并简单管理,相反,前边三个动词liberated和shuttled相对难管理,尤其是liberated,修饰的剧情较长。遭受这种情状,作者欢跃把长句子拆短,把修饰的有的单独管理。那样一来,原本很严厉的梳洗结构就可以克制,句子的音频也会变得更轻快。假设要加多小短句,有二种最方便的法子,第风姿罗曼蒂克种扩张动词,因为小短句的主导正是动词。动词就相通雨露大概是冰雪中央的小灰尘,即便一点都不大,可是能给蒸汽提供附着的点。第三种正是扩大逻辑关系词,把带有的逻辑关系显化出来。

From The Gene Page 244:

They could be liberated from the genomes of organisms where they had
been trapped for
millennia那风流倜傥部分,liberated其实是结果,trapped是爆发结果此前的状态。所以修饰和被修饰部分之间的涉嫌,能够视作时间顺序关系依旧前后相比关系。思谋到那或多或少,笔者先写以前,再写之后,然后点明两个相比较关系。就得出了“只是纯属年来监管在基因组中的意气风发有的,相反,基因已经能从基因组中领到出来”,稍作改进后,顺应前文,与前文构成递进。

It was an inverted fable: an academic Goliath versus a pharmaceutical
David, one lumbering, powerful, handicapped by size, the other nimble,
quick, adept at dancing around rules.

那般一句话就被拆分成两句话,更易于精晓。

翻译:

第2个翻译的难点,便是本文标题啦。think about和think
in。这种用法,是英语只有的文字游戏,是让人会心一笑,感到俄文很讨人喜欢又很调皮的用法。相似的说教小编在事先某篇维达l
Speech of the Day上也来看过,原著忘记了,大约是We need to use our brains
to think about things, instead of think of them.
小编当下的翻译是“有些事,我们要用脑子思忖,不能够只记挂着。”纵然意思出来了,却丟掉了芬兰语里的小把戏。那黄金年代段也是同等,尽管能把原意表明出来,却未能在翻译中复发布公文字游戏,西班牙语中同用一个think,而粤语里却很难找到有同叁个字的词语,分别对应需求思索的标题和解决难题的思绪。要是有人能体会驾驭,应当要报告笔者。

那差相当的少便是有影响的人和羊倌传说的翻版嘛:学术界的大个儿单挑制药界小个子,三个年富力强,牛高马大,可是反应粗笨,另三个机敏灵活,月影舞步,并且专长使巧劲儿。

译文如下:

不错的观点是询问自然,而科技(science and technology)的出发点是掌握控制自然。重新整合DNA的落实,使遗传学从一门科学成为了意气风发项科学技术。基因已经不再是抽象概念,不再只是纯属年来拘押在基因组中的风流浪漫局地,相反,基因已经能从基因组中领抽取来,在物种间转移,并扩充复制、提纯、扩大、裁减、改进、重排、变异、混合、配对、剪切、贴合、编辑。在人类手上,它们突显出Infiniti或者。至此,基因已经不只是商讨的课题,而改为了探究的工具。就象是小孩在长大的进度中会豁然开朗,原本语言的作用力是双向的,人的合计能够用语言表明出来,而语言反过来也能对观念发生影响。重新整合DNA本领的现身,让遗传学的语言(基因卡塔尔也改成了双向的。生物学家耗费时间四十几年,想要探求基因的原形–而前段时间能够动用基因反过来研究生物学本质。简言之,大家早已提升了,基因从“难题”形成了“思路”。

From the Gene Page 244:

It was an inverted fable: an academic Goliath versus a pharmaceutical
David, one lumbering, powerful, handicapped by size, the other nimble,
quick, adept at dancing around rules.

那生龙活虎段注重考虑了国文读者的选拔度。inverted
fable直接用旧事轮廓,“小个子羊倌克制受人爱惜的人格南宁”,老妪能解,直接给了主演和结果。前边的小词都管理成了四字结构。那是二个民用习贯,假使原作复杂难懂,作者习于旧贯翻译成轻易易懂的,借使原作轻易浅显,小编又习贯翻译成讨巧顺口的。当然,前提是跟原作的语言风格不矛盾。

译文如下

这差不离便是品格高尚的人不敌羊倌的翻版嘛:学术界的高个儿单挑制药界小个子,多少个拔山举鼎,牛高马大,然则反应愚昧,另二个机警灵活,月影舞步,而且长于钻空子使巧劲。

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